Neil Edwards: publications


Keery, J. S., Holden, P. B. and Edwards, N. R. Sensitivity of the Eocene Climate to CO2 and Orbital Variability. Submitted to Climate of the Past. doi:10.5194/cp-2017-60,

Bell, S., Benatti, F., Edwards, N. R., Laney, R., Morse, D. R., Piccolo, L. and Zanetti, O. Smart Cities and M3: Rapid research, meaningful metrics and co-design. Accepted in Systemic Practice and Action Research.

Warren, R. F., Edwards, N. R., Babonneau, F., Bacon, P.M., Dietrich, J.-P., Ford, R. W., Garthwaite, P., Gerten, D., Goswami, S., Haurie, A., Hiscock, K., Holden, P. B., Hyde, M. R., Joshi, S. R., Kanudia, A., Labriet, M., Leimbach, M., Oyebamiji, O. K., Osborn, T., Pizzileo, B., Popp, A., Price, J., Riley, G., Schaphoff, S., Slavin, P., Vielle, M. and Wallace, C. Producing Policy-relevant Science by Enhancing Robustness and Model Integration for the Assessment of Global Environmental Change. Submitted to Environmental Modelling and Software.

Wilson, J., Barker, S., Edwards, N. R., Holden, P. B. and Ridgwell, A. Constraining the spatial patterns of remineralisation in the Ocean. Submitted to Deep-Sea Research Part I

Holden, P. B., Edwards, N. R., Hensman, J. and Wilkinson, R. D. ABC for climate: dealing with expensive simulators. In S. A. Sisson, Y. Fan, and M. Beaumont eds. Approximate Bayesian Computation: Likelihood-Free Methods for Complex Models, Chapman and Hall.


Holden, P. B., N. R. Edwards, K. Fraedrich, E. Kirk, F. Lunkeit and X. Zhu 2016 PLASIM-GENIE v1.0: a new intermediate complexity AOGCM. Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 9, pp 3347-3361, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-3347-2016,

Tran, G. T., K. I. C. Oliver, A. Sóbester, D. J. J. Toal, P. B. Holden, R. Marsh, P. Challenor and N. R. Edwards 2016 Building a traceable climate model hierarchy with multi-level emulators. Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography, Vol. 2, pp. 17-37, doi:10.5194/ascmo-2-17-2016,

Mercure, J.-F., Pollitt, H., Bassi, A. M., Viñuales, J. E. and Edwards, N. R. 2016 Modelling complex systems of heterogeneous agents to better design sustainability transitions policy. Global Environmental Change, Vol. 37, pp. 102-115, doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.02.003,

Foley, A. M., P. B. Holden, N. R. Edwards, J.-F. Mercure, P. Salas, H. Pollitt and U. Chewpreecha 2016 Climate model emulation in an integrated assessment framework: a case study for mitigation policies in the electricity sector. Earth Syst. Dynam., Vol. 7, pp. 119-132,

Joshi, S. R., Vielle, M., Babonneau, F., Edwards, N. R. and Holden, P. B. 2015 Physical and economic consequences of sea-level rise: A coupled GIS and CGE analysis under uncertainties. Environmental and Resource Economics, pp. 1-27,

Currie, T. E., A. Bogaard, R. Cesaretti, N. R. Edwards, P. Francois, P. B. Holden, D. Hoyer, A. Korotayev, J. Manning, J. C. Moreno Garcia, O. K. Oyebamiji, C. Petrie, P. Turchin, H. Whitehouse and A. Williams 2015 Agricultural productivity in past societies: Toward an empirically informed model for testing cultural evolutionary hypotheses. Cliodynamics, Vol. 6, pp 24-56,

Labriet, M., Biberacher, M., Holden, P. B., Edwards, N. R., Kanudia A. and Loulou, R. 2015 Assessing Climate Impacts on the Energy Sector with TIAM-WORLD: Focus on Heating and Cooling and Hydropower Potential. In G. Giannakidis et al. eds. Informing Energy and Climate Policies Using Energy Systems Models, Lecture Notes in Energy 30, pp. 389-409, Springer,

Holden, P. B., Edwards, N. R., Garthwaite, P. H. and Wilkinson, R. D. 2015 Emulation and interpretation of high-dimensional climate model outputs. Journal of Applied Statistics, Vol. 42, pp. 2038-2055, doi:10.1080/02664763.2015.1016412,

Oyebamiji, O. K., Edwards, N. R., Holden, P. B., Garthwaite, P. H., Schaphoff, S. and Gerten, D. 2015 Emulating global climate change impacts on crop yields. Statistical Modelling, Vol. 15, pp. 499-525, doi:10.1177/1471082X14568248,

Haurie, A., F. Babonneau, N. R. Edwards, P. Holden, A. Kanudia, M. Labriet, B. Pizzileo and M. Vielle 2015 Fairness in Climate Negotiations: A Meta-Game Analysis Based on Community Integrated Assessment. In Bernard, L. and Semmler, W. eds. The Oxford Handbook of the Macroeconomics of Global Warming, Oxford University Press, USA, 704 pp. ISBN-10: 0199856974.

Labriet, M., Joshi, S. R., Vielle, M., Holden, P. B., Edwards, N. R., Kanudia, A., Loulou, R. and Babonneau, F. 2015 Worldwide impacts of climate change on energy for heating and cooling. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Vol. 20, pp. 1111-1136, doi: 10.1007/s11027-013-9522-7,

Mercure, J.-F., H. Pollitt, U. Chewpreecha, P. Salas, A. M. Foley, P. B. Holden and N. R. Edwards 2014 The dynamics of technology diffusion and the impacts of climate policy instruments in the decarbonisation of the global electricity sector. Energy Policy, Vol. 73, pp. 686-700, doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2014.06.029,

Urban, N. M., Holden, P. B., Edwards, N. R., Sriver, R. L. and Keller, K. 2014 Historical and future learning about climate sensitivity. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, pp. 2543-2552, doi:10.1002/2014GL059484,

Holden, P. B., N. R. Edwards, P. H. Garthwaite, K. Fraedrich, F. Lunkeit, E. Kirk, M. Labriet, A. Kanudia and F. Babonneau 2014 PLASIM-ENTSem v1.0: a spatio-temporal emulator of future climate change for impacts assessment. Geosci. Model Dev., Vol. 7, pp. 433-451, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-433-2014,

Foley, A. M., D. Dalmonech, A. D. Friend, F. Aires, A. Archibald, P. Bartlein, L. Bopp, J. Chappellaz, P. Cox, N. R. Edwards, G. Feulner, P. Friedlingstein, S. P. Harrison, P. O. Hopcroft, C. D. Jones, J. Kolassa, J. G. Levine, I. C. Prentice, J. Pyle, N. Vázquez Riveiros, E. W. Wolff and S. Zaehle 2013 Evaluation of biospheric components in Earth system models using modern and palaeo observations: the state-of-the-art. Biogeosciences, Vol. 10, pp. 8305-8328, doi:10.5194/bgd-10-8305-2013,

Marsh, R., A. Sóbester, E. E. Hart, K. I. C. Oliver, N. R. Edwards, and S. J. Cox 2013 An Optimally Tuned Ensemble of the 'eb_go_gs' Configuration of GENIE: Parameter Sensitivity and Bifurcations in the Atlantic Overturning Circulation, Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 6, pp. 1729-1744, doi:10.5194/gmd-6-1729-2013,

Kirsten Zickfeld, Michael Eby, Kaitlin Alexander, Andrew J Weaver, Elisabeth Crespin, Thierry Fichefet, Hugues Goosse, Gwenaelle Philippon-Berthier, Neil R. Edwards, Philip B. Holden, Alexey V. Eliseev, Igor Mokhov, Georg Feulner, Hendrik Kienert, Mahe Perrette, Chris E. Forest, Pierre Friedlingstein, Fortunat Joos, Renato Spahni, Marco Steinacher, Michio Kawamiya, Kaoru Tachiiri, David Kicklighter, Erwam Monier, Adam Schlosser, Andrei Sokolov, Katsumi Matsumoto, Kathy S. Tokos, Steffen M. Olsen, Jens O. P. Pedersen, Andy Ridgwell, Gary Shaffer, Masakazu Yoshimori, Ning Zeng and Fang Zhao, 2013 Long-term Climate Change Commitment and Reversibility: An EMIC Intercomparison, J. Climate, Vol. 26, pp. 5782–5809, doi:

M. Eby, A.J. Weaver, K. Alexander, K. Zickfeld, A. Abe-Ouchi, A.A. Cimatoribus, E. Crespin, S.S. Drijfhout, N.R. Edwards, A.V. Eliseev, G. Feulner, T. Fichefet C.E. Forest, H. Goosse, P.B. Holden, F. Joos, M. Kawamiya , D. Kicklighter H. Kienert , K. Matsumoto, I.I. Mokhov, E. Monier, S.M. Olsen, J.O.P. Pedersen M. Perrette, G. Philippon-Berthier, A. Ridgwell, A. Schlosser T. Schneider von Deimling, G. Shaffer, R.S. Smith, R. Spahni, A.P. Sokolov, M. Steinacher, K. Tachiiri, K. Tokos, M. Yoshimori, N. Zeng and F. Zhao, 2013 Historical and idealized climate model experiments: an intercomparison of Earth system models of intermediate complexity, Clim. Past, Vol. 9, pp. 1111-1140, doi:10.5194/cp-9-1111-2013

F. Joos, R. Roth, J. S. Fuglestvedt, G. P. Peters, I. G. Enting, W. von Bloh, V. Brovkin, E. J. Burke, M. Eby, N. R. Edwards, T. Friedrich, T. L. Frölicher, P. R. Halloran, P. B. Holden, C. Jones, T. Kleinen, F. Mackenzie, K. Matsumoto, M. Meinshausen, G.-K. Plattner, A. Reisinger, J. Segschneider, G. Shaffer, M. Steinacher, K. Strassmann, K. Tanaka, A. Timmermann, and A. J. Weaver 2013 Carbon dioxide and climate impulse response functions for the computation of greenhouse gas metrics: a multi-model analysis, Atmos. Chem. Phys., Vol. 13, pp. 2793-2825, doi:10.5194/acp-13-2793-2013,

P. B. Holden, N. R. Edwards, D. Gerten, and S. Schaphoff 2013 A model-based constraint on CO2 fertilisation, Biogeosciences, Vol. 10, pp. 339-355, doi:10.5194/bg-10-339-2013

P.B. Holden, N.R. Edwards, S.A. Müller, K.I.C. Oliver, R.M. Death and A. Ridgwell, 2013 Controls on the spatial distribution of oceanic δ13CDIC, Biogeosciences, Vol. 10, pp. 1815-1833, doi:10.5194/bg-10-1815-2013,

R. Marsh, Müller, S. A., Yool, A. and Edwards, N. R. 2011 Incorporation of the C-GOLDSTEIN efficient climate model into the GENIE framework: "genie_eb_go_gs" configurations of GENIE, Geoscientific Model Development, Vol. 4, pp. 957-992, doi:10.5194/gmd-4-957-2011.

Edwards, N. R. 2011 Plausible mitigation targets, Nature Climate Change, Vol. 1, pp. 395-396, doi:10.1038/nclimate1267,

Edwards, N. R., Cameron, D. and Rougier, J. 2011 Precalibrating an intermediate complexity climate model, Climate Dynamics, Vol. 37, pp. 1469-1482, doi: 10.1007/s00382-010-0921-0 eprint.pdf

Balan Sarojini, B., Gregory, J. M., Tailleux, R., Bigg, G. R., Blaker, A. T., Cameron, D. R., Edwards, N. R., Megann, A. P., Shaffrey, L. C. and Sinha, B. 2011 High frequency variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, Ocean Science, Vol. 7, pp. 471-486, doi:10.5194/os-7-471-2011.

Holden, P. B., Edwards, N. R., Wolff, E. W., Valdes, P. J. and Singarayer, J. S. 2011 The Mid-Brunhes Event and West Antarctic Ice Sheet stability, Journal of Quaternary Science, Vol. 26(5), pp. 474-477, doi: 10.1002/jqs.1525

Bahn, O., Edwards, N.R., Knutti, R. and Stocker, T.F. 2011 Energy policies avoiding a tipping point in the climate system, Energy Policy, Vol. 39, pp. 334-348. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2010.10.002

de Boer, A. M., Watson, A. J., Edwards, N. R. and Oliver, K. I. C. 2010 A multi-variable box model approach to the soft tissue carbon pump, Climate of the Past, Vol. 6, pp. 827-841.

Holden, P.B., Edwards, N.R., Oliver, K.I.C., Lenton, T.M. and Wilkinson, R.D. 2010 A probabilistic calibration of climate sensitivity and terrestrial carbon change in GENIE-1, Climate Dynamics, Vol. 35, pp. 785-806 doi: 10.1007/s00382-009-0630-8

Holden, P.B. and Edwards, N.R. 2010 Dimensionally reduced emulation of an AOGCM for application to Integrated Assessment Modelling, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 37, L21707, doi:10.1029/2010GL045137

Oliver, K. I. C., Hoogakker, B. A. A., Crowhurst, S., Henderson, G. M., Rickaby, R. E. M., Edwards, N. R. and Elderfield, H. 2010 A synthesis of marine sediment core d13C data over the last 150,000 years, Climate of the Past, Vol. 6, pp. 645-673, doi:10.5194/cp-6-645-2010.

Holden, P. B., N.R. Edwards, E.W. Wolff, N.J. Lang, J.S. Singarayer, P.J.Valdes and T.F. Stocker 2010 Interhemispheric coupling and warm Antarctic Interglacials. Climate of the Past, Vol. 6, pp 431-443. Climate of the Past.

De Boer, A. M., Gnanadesikan, A., Edwards, N. R. and Watson, A. J. 2010 Meridional density gradients do not control the Atlantic overturning circulation. J. Physical Oceanog. Vol. 40, pp. 368-380.

Oliver, K. I. C. and Edwards, N. R. 2008 Location of potential energy sources and the export of dense water from the Atlantic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 35, Issue 22, CiteID L22604. eprint.pdf

Müller, S. A., Joos, F., Plattner, G.-K., Edwards, N. R. and Stocker, T. F. 2008 Modelled natural and excess radiocarbon: Sensitivities to the gas exchange formulation and ocean transport strength. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 22, Art. GB3011. eprint.pdf

Livina, V. N., Edwards, N. R., Goswami, S. and Lenton, T. M. 2008 A wavelet coefficient score for the comparison of two-dimensional climatic data fields. Quarterly J. Royal Meteorological Soc. Vol. 134, pp 941-955.

Plattner, G.-K., R. Knutti, F. Joos, T. F. Stocker, W. von Bloh, V. Brovkin, D. Cameron, E. Driesschaert, S. Dutkiewicz, M. Eby, N. R. Edwards, T. Fichefet, J. C. Hargreaves, C. D. Jones, M. F. Loutre, H. D. Matthews, A. Mouchet, S. A. Müller, S. Nawrath, A. Price, A. Sokolov, K. M. Strassmann, and A. J. Weaver 2008 Long-term climate commitments projected with climate - carbon cycle models. Journal of Climate, Vol. 21, pp. 2721-2751.

Contributing author to: Meehl, G. A., T. F. Stocker, W. D. Collins, P. Friedlingstein, A. T. Gaye, J. M. Gregory, A. Kitoh, R. Knutti, J. M. Murphy, A. Noda, S. C. B. Raper, I. G. Watterson, A. J. Weaver and Z.-C. Zhao, 2007, Global Climate Projections. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H. L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.

T. M. Lenton, R. Marsh, A. R. Price, D. J. Lunt, Y. Aksenov, J. D. Annan, T. Cooper-Chadwick, S. J. Cox, N. R. Edwards, S. Goswami, J. C. Hargreaves, P. P. Harris, Z. Jiao, V. N. Livina, A. J. Payne, I. C. Rutt, J. G. Shepherd, P. J. Valdes, G. Williams, M. S. Williamson and A. Yool. 2007 Effects of atmospheric dynamics and ocean resolution on bi-stability of the thermohaline circulation examined using the Grid ENabled Integrated Earth system modelling (GENIE) framework. Climate Dynamics, Vol. 29, pp. 591-613. eprint.pdf supplement.pdf

Siddall, M., Stocker, T. F., Henderson, G. M., Joos, F., Frank, M., Edwards, N. R., Ritz, S. and Müller, S. A. 2007 Modelling the relationship between 231Pa/230Th distribution in North Atlantic sediment and Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Paleoceanography, Vol. 22, Art. PA2214. eprint.pdf

Ridgwell, A., Hargreaves, J., Edwards, N. R, Annan, J. D., Lenton, T. M., Marsh, R., Yool, A. and Watson, A. 2007 Marine geochemical data assimilation in an efficient Earth System Model of global biogeochemical cycling. Biogeosciences, Vol. 4, pp. 87-104. pdf

Price, A. R., Voutchkov, I. I., Pound, G. E., Edwards, N. R., Lenton, T. M., Cox, S. J. and the GENIE team 2006 Multiobjective tuning of Grid-enabled Earth System Models using a Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on eScience and Grid Computing, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Dec. 2006., pdf

Müller, S.A., Joos, F., Edwards, N.R. and Stocker, T.F. 2006 Water mass distribution and ventilation time scales in a cost-efficient, 3-dimensional ocean model. J. Climate, Vol. 19, pp. 5479-5499. eprint.pdf

Williamson, M.S., Lenton, T.M., Shepherd, J.G. and Edwards, N.R. 2006 An efficient numerical terrestrial scheme (ENTS) for fast earth system modelling. Ecological Modelling, Vol. 198, pp. 362-374. eprint.pdf

Bahn, O., Drouet, L., Edwards, N.R., Haurie, A., Knutti, R., Kypreos, S., Stocker, T.F. and Vial, J.-P. 2006 The Coupling of Optimal Economic Growth and Climate Dynamics. Climatic Change, Vol. 79, pp. 103-119. eprint.pdf

Drouet, L., Edwards, N.R. and Haurie, A. 2006 Coupling Climate and Economic Models in a Cost-Benefit Framework: A Convex Optimization Approach. Environmental Modelling and Assessment, Vol. 11, pp. 101-114. preprint.pdf

Lenton, T. M., Williamson, M. S., Edwards, N. R., Marsh, R., Price, A. R., Ridgwell, A. J., Shepherd, J. G., and the GENIE team. 2006 Millennial timescale carbon cycle and climate change in an efficient Earth system model. Climate Dynamics, Vol. 26, pp. 687-711. eprint.pdf

Beltran, C., Edwards, N.R., Haurie, A., Vial, J.-P. and Zachary, D.S. 2006 Oracle-Based Optimization Applied to Climate Model Calibration. Environmental Modelling and Assessment, Vol. 11, pp. 31-43. preprint.pdf

Edwards, N.R., Greppin, H., Haurie, A. and Viguier, L. 2005 Linking climate and economic dynamics. In Haurie, A. and Viguier, L. eds. The Coupling of Climate and Economic Dynamics, Springer.

Drouet, L., Edwards, N.R., Beltran, C., Haurie, A.B., Vial, J-P. and Zachary, D.S. 2005 An Oracle Method to Couple Climate and Economic Dynamics. In Haurie, A. and Viguier, L. eds. The Coupling of Climate and Economic Dynamics, Springer.

Edwards, N.R. and Staquet, C. 2005 Focusing of an inertia–gravity wave packet by a baroclinic shear flow. Dyn. Atm. Oceans, Vol. 40, pp. 91-113.

Siddall, M., Stocker, T.F., Henderson, G.M., Edwards, N.R., Müller, S.A., Joos, F. and Frank, M. 2005 231Pa/230Th fractionation by ocean transport, biogenic particle flux and particle type. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 237, pp. 135-155.

Edwards, N.R. and Marsh R. 2005 Uncertainties due to transport-parameter sensitivity in an efficient 3-D ocean-climate model. Climate Dynamics, Vol. 24, pp. 415-433, preprint.pdf

Annan, J.D., Hargreaves, J.C., Edwards, N.R. and Marsh, R. 2005 Parameter estimation in an intermediate complexity earth system model using an ensemble Kalman filter. Ocean Modelling, Vol. 8, pp. 135-154. preprint.pdf

Marsh R., Yool, A., Lenton, T.M., Gulamali, M.Y., Edwards, N.R., Shepherd, J.G., Krznaric, M., Newhouse, S. and Cox, S.J. 2004 Bistability of the thermohaline circulation identified through comprehensive 2-parameter sweeps of an efficient climate model. Climate Dynamics, Vol. 23, pp. 761-777, preprint.pdf

Hargreaves, J.C., Annan, J.D., Edwards, N.R. and Marsh, R. 2004 An efficient climate forecasting method using an intermediate complexity Earth System Model and the ensemble Kalman filter. Climate Dynamics, Vol. 23, pp. 745-760, preprint.pdf

Rohling, E.J., Marsh, R., Wells, N.C., Siddall, M. and Edwards, N.R. 2004 Similar meltwater contributions to glacial sea level changes from Antarctic and northern ice sheets. Nature, Vol. 430, pp. 1016-1021.

Edwards, N.R. and Richards, K.J. 2004 Nonlinear double-diffusive intrusions at the equator. J. Marine Res., Vol. 62, pp. 233-259. preprint.pdf

Richards, K.J. and Edwards, N.R. 2003 Lateral mixing in the equatorial Pacific: the importance of inertial instability. Geophys. Res. Letters, Vol 30(17). art. no. 1888 (AGU `journal highlight') preprint.pdf

Edwards, N.R. and Shepherd, J.G. 2002 Bifurcations of the thermohaline circulation in a simplified three-dimensional model of the world ocean and the effects of interbasin connectivity. Climate Dynamics, Vol. 19, pp. 31-42. preprint.pdf

Edwards, N.R. and Shepherd, J.G. 2001 Multiple thermohaline states due to variable diffusivity in a hierarchy of simple models. Ocean Modelling, Vol. 3, pp. 67-94. preprint.pdf

Killworth, P.D. and Edwards, N.R. 1999 A turbulent bottom boundary layer code for use in numerical ocean models. J. Physical Oceanography, Vol. 29, pp. 1221-1238.

Edwards, N.R. and Richards, K.J. 1999 Linear double-diffusive-inertial instability at the equator. J. Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 395, pp. 295-319.

Edwards, N.R., Willmott, A.J. and Killworth, P.D. 1998. On the role of topography and wind stress on the stability of the thermohaline circulation. J. Physical Oceanography, Vol. 28, pp. 756-778. preprint.pdf

Edwards, N.R. and Mobbs, S.D. 1997. Observations of isolated wave-turbulence interaction in the stable atmospheric boundary layer. Quarterly J. Royal Meteorological Soc., Vol. 123, pp. 561-584.

Edwards, N.R. and Mobbs, S.D. 1997. Modelling isolated wave-turbulence interaction in the stable atmospheric boundary layer. Quarterly J. Royal Meteorological Soc., Vol. 123, pp. 585-694.

Edwards, N.R. 1996. Unsteady similarity solutions and oscillating ocean gyres. J. Marine Res., Vol. 54, pp. 793-826. eprint.pdf

Willmott, A.J., Edwards, N.R. and Killworth, P.D. 1996. Abyssal circulation in a circumpolar basin driven by discrete sources of buoyancy. J. Physical Oceanography, Vol. 26, pp. 49-64.

Edwards, N.R. and Mobbs, S.D. 1995. Solitary wave-turbulence interaction in the stable atmospheric boundary layer. In Benzi, R. (Ed.) Advances in turbulence 5. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 122-126.

Edwards, N.R., McIntosh, A.C. and Brindley, J. 1994. The development of pressure induced instabilities in premixed flames. Combust. Sci. and Tech., Vol. 99, pp. 179-199.

King, J.C., Mobbs, S.D. and Edwards, N.R. 1994. Surface boundary conditions in stably-stratified environmental flows. In Castro, I.P. and Rocliff, N. (Eds.) Stably-stratified flows: Flow and dispersion over topography. Oxford University Press. pp. 93-103.